Exhausted T Cells Can Be Replenished Through CAR-T Immunotherapy – Market News Store

Exhausted T Cells Can Be Replenished Through CAR-T Immunotherapy

Around a decade back, scientists revealed the development of a novel immune-based cancer therapy, known as CAR-T (chimeric antigen receptor-T). This therapy involves the extraction, genetic modification, and re-infusion of immune cells—specifically T-cells—of the patients. This therapy seems to be quite effective in eradicating liquid cancers, such as lymphomas and leukemias.

In the previous researches, it has been established that carcinomas and sarcomas are highly resistant to such adoptive T cell transfer approaches, as genetically modified T-cells gradually lose its tumor-fighting ability once they are exposed to a cancerous tumor. Researchers have termed this cellular function loss in T cell as “dysfunction” or “exhaustion”.

LJI (La Jolla Institute for Immunology) researchers reported that weakening of T-cells ability to act against tumors is associated with a transcription factor, NFAT, which activates specific “downstream” genes. Earlier, a graduate student, Joyce Chen, discovered that genetic elimination of transcription factors, NR4A—encoded by a set of those downstream proteins—improved the tumor rejection ability of CAR-T cells.

However, the characteristics and roles of additional proteins directing NR4A and NFAT in that pathway are unclear.

On a similar note, nanotechnology also plays a vital role in treating cancer-like life-threatening diseases. Use of inorganic and organic materials-based nanostructures under near-infrared light exposure is possibly an effective alternative for treating cancer. Though this approach is not completely developed yet, it can allow the experts to target and destroy precise cancer-generating cells using nanoparticles.

To develop nanoparticles-based cancer treatment, the researchers opted for gold-lipid nanoparticles. The reasons behind the specificity are that gold-nanoparticles have no toxic effect inside our body, convert light energy into heat energy for effectively destroying cancer, and are biocompatible.

These nanostructures breakdown under near-infrared light, liberating the anticancer drug packed within their structure. These gold nanohybrids are capable of performing dual roles simultaneously, in therapeutics and diagnostics.

You might also like

Leave A Reply

Your email address will not be published.